US Navy Admiral Grace Hopper (1906-1992) was one of the first programmers in the history of the computer. Her belief was that programming languages should be easy, understandable and simple, like English, very much influenced the development of one of the first programming languages – COBOL. Common Business-Oriented Language, commonly known as the Cobol language, is one of the oldest programming languages available. This language was developed in 1959, and soon it became accepted throughout the world for programming tasks of a business (business and financial) nature.
When she was seven, Grace disassembled her alarm clock because she wanted to know how it worked, but she could not put it back. While her mother did not understand what young Grace had intended, she split up seven hours at home. This intellectual curiosity will then play a very important role in the classification of Grace Hopper into the ranks of the most famous women inventors.
“People are allergic to change. They like to say, “We’ve always worked this way.” I’m trying to fight it. That’s why I have a watch on the wall whose hands are going in the opposite direction. ” –Grace Hopper
Jean Sammet – FORMAC
Jean E. Sammet (1928 -) is a retired programmer who is known for working on FORMAC. FORTRAN was developed by IBM in the ’50s, mainly for mathematical computation and scientific computing. In 1961, IBM hired mathematician Jean Sammet, who, together with Grace Hopper, was part of a group developed by COBOL. In 1962 Sammet developed the programming language FORMAC (FORmula MAnipulation Compiler), a continuation of FORTRAN, which was able to perform algebraic manipulations. FORMAC has become the first language in wider use for symbolic mathematical calculations. Sammet is the author of the book “Programming Languages – History and Fundamentals”, which was named “instant computer classics” in 1969 when it was published.
Cynthia Solomon – Logo
In the late ’60s, a group of researchers from Massachusetts saw the need for a new programming language intended for children, the basis of words and sentences, and not numbers and symbols, as in many programming languages until then. One of these researchers was Cynthia Solomon, who began her career in computer science teaching Lisp while working for artificial intelligence pioneer Marvin Minsky.
A few years later she participated in the development of the new language – Logo. It is a high-level programming language that is based on a functional programming mode. It was created from the Lisp programming language. The component of the Logo language is turtle graphics, a graphical system that is easy to learn as well as the whole language. This language was created with the goal of being an educational tool, and not just in programming.
Originally, he had no graphics capabilities, so he was attached to the device, a kind of robot, which was called a turtle.The turtle was connected to a computer and it was managed with the Logo language command. She could move horizontally back and forth and change the direction and direction of movement. If a sheet of paper was placed below the turtle, she could leave a trail behind her, forming a graphic called “turtle graphics”.
Barbara Liskov – CLU
Barbara Liskov is the first woman in the United States to have a doctorate in computer science. She led a group of scientists who designed and developed barbarian liskovCLU, a programming language, which was an important evolutionary step in the development of programming languages.
It was created in the mid 1970s. Through the CLU, Liskova introduced (and popularized) concepts such as abstract data types, iterators, and parallel tasks. Liskova received the 2008 Turing Award for her work in creating programming languages and methodology of software that led to the development of object-oriented programming.
She developed two programming languages – mentioned CLU and Argus (1980). Today she is a professor of engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, at the Department of Electrical Engineering and Informatics. The author is three books and more than a hundred professional papers.
Adele Goldberg – Smalltalk
As COBOL was developed 20 years earlier to make programming easier for all people, one of the basic ideas behind the Smalltalk story is to create a language that will allow all, and not just developers, to create applications.
In 1973, Adele Goldberg joined the Smalltalk team and played a very important role in the development of the language itself, as well as its pioneering concepts, such as model-view-controller, the WYSIWYG editor and an integrated development environment.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamic, reflective programming language. The combination of Smalltalk and C represents Objective-C, a programming language used in Apple for OS X and iOS operating systems and their application programming interfaces.